Spondylolysis refers to a defect in the pars interarticularis—the segment of the vertebra between the superior and inferior articular processes—while spondylolisthesis refers to a forward displacement of a vertebra, especially the fifth lumbar vertebra, most commonly occurring after a fracture. Both conditions are relatively common in children, adolescents and athletes, especially gymnasts, divers, football linemen, tennis players, and rowers.
Those who suffer from spondylolisthesis may experience pain in the legs, thighs, lower back and buttocks that worsens with standing or weight-bearing activity. Other common symptoms include hamstring tightness, restricted range of motion and tenderness. In rare cases, loss of bladder or bowel control may occur.
Activity: Commonly seen in gymnasts, divers, football linemen, tennis players, divers and rowers